Health and Fitness

What is Fitness? Types, Benefits You Should Know

Numerous individuals aspire to achieve fitness, considering it synonymous with good health. Maintaining a high level of overall fitness correlates with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and enhances the ability to effectively manage health challenges as they arise.

Moreover, optimal fitness contributes to increased functionality and mobility throughout one’s entire lifespan.

In the short term, engaging in regular physical activity has multifaceted benefits, ranging from an improved mood and heightened focus to better quality of sleep, positively impacting day-to-day functioning.

Fundamentally, our bodies are designed to move, and they operate more efficiently when imbued with a higher level of fitness. It’s crucial to recognize, however, that there are diverse paths to achieving fitness.

Consider the contrast between a ballet dancer and a bodybuilder or a sprinter and a gymnast. Fitness, contrary to common misconceptions, doesn’t conform to a singular “look.” In essence, one’s appearance may not accurately reflect their habits, actual physical activity levels, or overall fitness.

Types of Fitness


A well-rounded exercise routine encompasses several key components of fitness, as outlined in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). These components are considered integral for promoting overall health and should be incorporated into a weekly exercise regimen.

It’s noteworthy that various definitions of fitness may include additional components beyond those highlighted by the HHS, such as endurance, muscular endurance, power, speed, balance, and agility.

1. Aerobic (Cardiovascular) Exercise

Aerobic exercise stands as the cornerstone of any comprehensive fitness program, and its importance is well-founded.

Referred to as cardiovascular exercise or cardio, this form of physical activity is designed to elevate both your heart rate and breathing rate, contributing to the enhancement of your cardiorespiratory fitness, as highlighted by the American Heart Association.

Aerobic exercise encompasses a broad spectrum of activities, including brisk walking, running, cycling, swimming, aerobic fitness classes (such as kickboxing), tennis, dancing, yard work, and even jumping rope, as outlined by the Physical Activity Guidelines.

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Engaging in these activities not only promotes cardiovascular health but also offers a versatile and enjoyable approach to achieving and maintaining overall fitness.

2. Strength Training

Strength training emerges as a crucial method for enhancing mobility and overall functionality, especially as individuals age. The decline in muscle mass associated with aging can significantly impact one’s quality of life.

Robert Sallis, MD, a family medicine doctor at Kaiser Permanente in Fontana, California, and chairman of the Exercise Is Medicine initiative with the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), emphasizes the importance of strength exercises in building both bones and muscles. Increased muscle mass serves as a protective measure against falls and fractures that become more prevalent in older age.

As defined by the ACSM, strength or resistance training involves exercises specifically crafted to enhance muscular fitness by working against external resistance.

Activities that align with this definition encompass lifting weights, utilizing resistance bands or your body weight, carrying heavy loads, and even engaging in strenuous gardening, in accordance with the Physical Activity Guidelines provided by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Incorporating such activities into a fitness regimen not only contributes to muscle development but also plays a pivotal role in promoting overall health and resilience, particularly in the aging population.

3. Flexibility and Mobility

Flexibility and mobility stand as integral components of healthy movement, as highlighted by the International Sports Sciences Association, yet they represent distinct concepts.

Flexibility pertains to the capacity of tendons, muscles, and ligaments to stretch, emphasizing the ability of these tissues to elongate. In contrast, mobility is centered around the body’s capability to maneuver a joint throughout its entire range-of-motion.

Although there isn’t a specific recommendation regarding the duration of activities aimed at enhancing flexibility or mobility (such as stretching), and the precise health benefits remain unclear due to limited research, the Physical Activity Guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) underscore the importance of flexibility exercises for physical fitness.

While there may not be specific time guidelines, the importance of flexibility exercises is acknowledged. Furthermore, the guidelines advise older adults to incorporate balance training into their weekly fitness routine.

Scientific evidence suggests that regular exercise involving balance training significantly diminishes the risk of falls among older adults, a factor associated with severe and debilitating injuries, underscoring the importance of balance-focused activities for this demographic.

Health Benefits of Fitness

Significant improvements in fitness play a pivotal role in drastically reducing the risk of chronic diseases that tend to develop over time, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and even cancer.

Grayson Wickham, DPT, CSCS, founder of Movement Vault, a mobility and movement company in New York City, emphasizes the overarching preventive impact of fitness, stating, “The one thing that will help prevent almost any type of disease is fitness.”

In 2007, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) joined forces with the American Medical Association to introduce the Exercise Is Medicine initiative. This collaborative effort aimed to integrate physical activity assessment into routine medical care and provide exercise resources accessible to people of all ability levels.

The initiative’s website emphasizes the scientifically proven benefits of physical activity, underscoring its potency as a preventive and therapeutic measure comparable to pharmaceutical agents.

The indisputable advantages of regular physical activity make it a formidable ally in the prevention and management of various chronic diseases and medical conditions.

1. Exercise Boosts Your Mood

Research consistently demonstrates that regular exercise acts as a protective factor against depression and anxiety. Moreover, scientific articles highlight that exercise not only assists in managing the symptoms of depression but also contributes to its treatment.

Exercise has been shown to have a positive impact on reducing inflammation, a factor often elevated in individuals experiencing depression. Additionally, researchers suggest that physical activity may facilitate beneficial changes in the brain, further reinforcing its role in mental health.

The multifaceted benefits of exercise on mental well-being extend beyond mere prevention, encompassing symptom management and potential therapeutic effects.

By addressing inflammation and promoting positive neurological changes, regular physical activity emerges as a valuable and holistic approach to supporting mental health and combating conditions like depression and anxiety.

2. Exercise Is Good for Sleep

Engaging in regular exercise can significantly contribute to achieving more restful sleep at night, according to a systematic review incorporating 34 studies. Out of these, 29 studies concluded that exercise not only enhanced sleep quality but also correlated with more extended periods of uninterrupted sleep.

The positive effects of exercise on sleep are attributed to its ability to regulate the body’s internal clock, induce chemical changes in the brain conducive to sleep, and alleviate presleep anxiety, as suggested by previous research.

It’s important to note, however, that high-intensity exercise performed too close to bedtime, typically within an hour or two, may pose challenges for some individuals in falling asleep. Therefore, it is recommended to schedule high-intensity workouts earlier in the day to optimize the positive impact of exercise on sleep quality.

3. Exercise Promotes Long-Term Health

The benefits of exercise extend beyond physical fitness and encompass a spectrum of health advantages. Research has consistently demonstrated that exercise improves brain function and promotes bone health. Additionally, it plays a crucial role in preserving muscle mass, reducing the likelihood of frailty as individuals age.

Engaging in regular physical activity is associated with various positive outcomes, including an enhanced sex life, improved gastrointestinal function, and a decreased risk of numerous diseases, such as cancer and stroke.

Notably, a study involving over 116,000 adults revealed that meeting the recommended guideline of 150 to 300 minutes of physical activity per week resulted in a 19 percent reduction in the risk of death from any cause. This underscores the profound impact that maintaining an active lifestyle can have on overall health and longevity.

4. Fitness Helps You Manage Chronic Disease

Exercise plays a crucial role in overall body function, especially in managing chronic health problems. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes that individuals with conditions such as osteoarthritis, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, dementia, or a history of stroke or cancer can benefit from regular physical activity.

Exercise has been shown to decrease pain, improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, enhance mobility, promote heart health, lower the risk of other chronic diseases, and contribute to positive mental health.

For individuals with chronic diseases seeking to maintain or increase their level of activity, a walking routine is generally considered a safe starting point. According to experts like Sallis, the majority of people do not require specific clearance from their doctors to initiate a walking regimen unless advised otherwise by their physician.

In fact, Sallis encourages viewing physical activity as a baseline, suggesting that one needs clearance not to exercise rather than the other way around.

However, it’s crucial to be aware of your body’s responses. If you experience excessive shortness of breath, chest pain, or any other concerning symptoms during exercise, it is advisable to consult with your doctor promptly.

Regular communication with healthcare professionals ensures a safe and tailored approach to physical activity, particularly for individuals managing chronic health conditions.

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